Diabetic Management in Malaysia: Effective Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes mellitus is probably one of the most popular diseases that affect millions worldwide. Diabetes mellitus is a condition caused by the inability of your body to process and utilize blood sugar, known as blood glucose.

In diabetes, insulin is not able to regulate blood sugar resulting in high blood sugar levels. There are three types of diabetes mellitus, type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes which affect children, adults, and pregnant women respectively.

Diabetes affects most body organs, including the kidneys, eyes, heart, blood vessels, and nerves. Managing diabetes is important to prevent organ damage, and improve the quality of life of people affected with diabetes.

Types of Diabetes

There are three main types of diabetes, depending on the level of insulin insufficiency:

  • Type 1 Diabetes:

    Caused by the destruction of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Regular insulin shots are used to manage type 1 diabetes.
  • Type 2 Diabetes:

    Involves insulin resistance in body cells, affecting adults and related to obesity, heart disease, and other chronic diseases.
  • Gestational Diabetes:

    Develops during pregnancy and can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

The three main types of diabetes are all characterized by some form of insulin insufficiency – either insulin deficiency or insulin resistance.

Complications of Diabetes

If diabetes is left untreated, it can progress to cause more life-threatening conditions. These complications can affect the quality of life of people living with diabetes, and even cause death. Complications seen in diabetes include:

  • Heart Disease – Diabetes can cause cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, heart attacks, and even stroke. Heart issues can become life-threatening over time, and result in death.
  • Diabetic Neuropathy – Diabetes can also result in nerve damage over time. Nerve damage can present with tingling and loss of sensation in the hands and feet which can spread to other parts of the body.
  • Diabetic Nephropathy – Diabetes can also cause damage to the kidneys and can result in kidney failure.
  • Diabetic Retinopathy – Diabetes can damage the eyes, and cause blindness.
  • Foot ulcers and amputation – When people living with diabetes get foot injuries, they can struggle with healing. These injuries can worsen and the injured foot commonly requires amputation.
  • Preeclampsia – Seen in pregnant women with gestational diabetes.
  • Erectile dysfunction in men
  • Neurological complications – such as dementia

Management of Diabetes

Although there is no permanent cure for diabetes, the disease can be managed to keep blood sugar levels low and prevent adverse tissue damage. Management is especially important to reduce inflammation and prevent cardiovascular diseases.

Type 1 diabetes can be successfully managed by administering insulin shots. As islet pancreas cells get destroyed, they can be supported by external insulin to maintain blood sugar levels. Insulin shots should be used with caution to prevent low blood sugar levels (which is worse than high blood sugar).

Steps to manage type 2 diabetes:

  • Diet modifications to cut out sugary foods and include fruits, grains, vegetables, and healthy fats.
  • Regular exercising
  • Close monitoring of blood sugar
  • Insulin shots
  • Anti-diabetic medications
  • Oxyz Dynamic Stem Cell

Managing heart disease in diabetes using EECP

EECP is a non-invasive treatment used to treat people with chronic angina. The goal of EECP is to improve blood flow in blood vessels and flow to the heart.

In a study by Sardina et al (2015), EECP therapy was shown to improve glycemic indexes - fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial glucose (PPG), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HBa1c) within 48 hours, and 2 weeks after commencement of treatment.

These indexes, especially HbA1c, remained decreased for up to 3 months after EECP therapy. EECP is an effective alternative to medications and can help treat heart diseases in their early stages.

Our clinics at Oxyzhealth offer EECP therapy to diabetic patients who prefer home management of their cardiovascular diseases. Starting EECP early can help reduce glycemic parameters, and prevent long-term complications.

Risk Factors of Diabetes

In 2022, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recorded more than 37 million Americans living with diabetes. The number of people affected by diabetes is a reflection of the risk factors around us.

The risk factors for type 1 diabetes

  1. Family history of type 1 diabetes
  2. History of autoimmune disease
  3. History of infections, especially viral infections.
  4. Past history of pancreatic injury (such as surgeries, infections, and tumors).

The risk factors for type 2 diabetes

  1. Family history of type 2 diabetes
  2. Race – The risk of type 2 diabetes is higher among Black and Hispanic people.
  3. Older age – Risk is higher in persons older than 45 years
  4. Being overweight/obese.
  5. High blood pressure
  6. High levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides (bad fat)
  7. Low levels of HDL cholesterol (good fat)
  8. Physical inactivity
  9. Smoking
  10. Past history of gestational diabetes

The risk factors for gestational diabetes

  1. Family history of gestational diabetes
  2. Race – The risk of gestational diabetes is also higher among Black and Hispanic people.
  3. Being overweight/obese during pregnancy

How does diabetes affect the body?

Diabetes is popular as the "father of all diseases" because it can affect almost every tissue/organ in the body to cause different kinds of diseases. Diabetes causes a persistent, high level of sugar in the blood that can result in various levels of organ damage.

Type 1 diabetes is caused by insulin deficiency and affects children more. Symptoms appear early in most children and can become worse if left untreated. In comparison, type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance and affects adults more. The disease develops slowly, and symptoms usually appear later in life.

Symptoms of Diabetes:

  • Polydipsia:

    Increased thirst
  • Polyuria:

    More frequent urination
  • Polyphagia:

    Increased eating
  • Fatigue and reduced muscle strength

  • Constant dry mouth

  • Weight loss

  • Vision loss

  • Paresthesia:

    Tingling of arms and feet
  • Poor healing of injuries and cuts:

    This can leave injuries open to serious infections.
  • Increased frequency of yeast and urinary tract infections (in women).

  • Erectile dysfunction and a decreased libido (in men).

Diabetes Management Conculsion in Kuala Lumpur

With the increasing number of people affected by diabetes, it has become a disease of serious concern globally. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to manage this disease and prevent complications. At Oxyzhealth, we are dedicated to providing solutions to treat diabetes and other diseases related to it for optimal health delivery.